The objective of this book is to introduce students of Accountancy & Finance, Business Administration, Marketing, Banking & Finance, and Office Technology Management of Nigeria Polytechnics and Colleges of Technology to modern Information Communication Technology (ICT), Data. PDF | Information communication technologies (ICT) at present are influencing every aspect of human life. They are playing salient roles in work places. Status and relevance of information and communications technology (ICT) in development policy See rarfaugurlaja.gq In the Accra.
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The Information and Communication Technology Curriculum (Senior Secondary) The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is now an. Information and communication technology in education: a curriculum for schools and programme of teacher development. Person as author: Khvilon, Evgueni. IV Information and Communication Technology. Mrs. Megha Gokhe. TSCER. 1 of Information and communication technology, or ICT, is defined as the.
Stands for "Information and Communication Technologies. It is similar to Information Technology IT , but focuses primarily on communication technologies.
This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums. In the past few decades, information and communication technologies have provided society with a vast array of new communication capabilities. For example, people can communicate in real-time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP VoIP , and video-conferencing.
Modern information and communication technologies have created a "global village," in which people can communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door. For this reason, ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies affect society. Many countries around the world have established organizations for the promotion of ICTs, because it is feared that unless less technologically advanced areas have a chance to catch up, the increasing technological advances in developed nations will only serve to exacerbate the already-existing economic gap between technological "have" and "have not" areas.
The definition of ICT needs a serious consideration of the general confusion in the understanding of the word 'Technology' - for without a clear understanding of 'Technology' much of the rest of this site cannot hang together. G B Harrison Ex Trent Polytechnic gives us this definition: Technology is the process of using scientific, material and human resources in order to meet human need or purpose. The definition of ICT therefore became: the use of information in order to meet human need or purpose including reference to the use of contemporary devices such as the Internet.
However, in an ever-changing world of Video-phones, mobile computing, blogs, Skype and OSS perhaps we should no longer just include the Internet, but leave the definition at 'contemporary devices?
For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots. Importantly, it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other.
In business, ICT is often categorised into two broad types of product: - 1 The traditional computer-based technologies things you can typically do on a personal computer or using computers at home or at work ; and 2 The more recent, and fast-growing range of digital communication technologies which allow people and organisations to communicate and share information digitally Let's take a brief look at these two categories to demonstrate the kinds of products and ideas that are covered by ICT: Traditional Computer Based Technologies These types of ICT include: Application Use Standard Office Applications - Main Examples Word processing E.
Microsoft Word: Write letters, reports etc Spreadsheets E. Microsoft Excel; Analyse financial information; calculations; create forecasting models etc Database E. Microsoft PowerPoint; make presentations, either directly using a software computer screen or data projector. Publish in digital format via email or over the Internet Desktop E.
Adobe Indesign, Quark Express, Microsoft Publisher; produce publishing newsletters, magazines and other complex documents. Graphics E. Accounting E. Specialised CAD programs exist for many types of design: architectural, engineering, electronics, roadways Customer Software that allows businesses to better understand their customers by Relations collecting and analysing data on them such as their product Management preferences, buying habits etc.
Often linked to software applications CRM that run call centres and loyalty cards for example. This is often achieved via networks of sending and receiving equipment, wires and satellite links.
The technologies involved in communication tend to be complex. You certainly don't need to understand them for your ICT course.
However, there are aspects of digital communications that you needs to be aware of.
These relate primarily to the types of network and the ways of connecting to the Internet. Let's look at these two briefly further revision notes provide much more detail to support your study.
Internal networks Usually referred to as a local area network LAN , this involves linking a number of hardware items input and output devices plus computer processing together within an office or building.
The aim of a LAN is to be able to share hardware facilities such as printers or scanners, software applications and data. The term ICT is now also used to refer to the merging convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.
There are large economic incentives huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network to merge the audio-visual, building management and telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management. This in turn has spurred the growth of organizations with the term ICT in their names to indicate their specialization in the process of merging the different network systems.
This section will rely on 6 Mansell and When, , to examine some of these aspects: 2. Public Administration: Public administration is a key aspect of civil society and it includes a range of services to citizens and industry. It provides various functions that enhance the social, economic and political developments of the citizenry.
Most importantly, it provides public information that is useful to the community at large ICTs facilitate these public administration activities.
For instance, e-Government, a concept that defines a situation where government activities and public information can be made available uses ICTs. In South Africa the government has expressed the intention of transforming itself into an e-government where information can be accessed at any time by phone or by Internet, with public Internet kiosks provided for universal access.
These kiosks are called the Public Information Terminals and there are public information terminals PIT installed at post offices around the country. The kiosks will provide instant access to the Internet, e-mail, government and educational services as well as e-commerce. Interactive directories of various tertiary institutions will also be available.
The advent of new ICTs brought a lot of new assumptions about radical changes in our society. Technological change cannot be judged outside the social, economic and political frameworks The massive change in our society cannot be explained only by technological especially ICT factors.
Excluding other factors may help us predict easier but not more accurately future evolutions but as a scientific effort it is a bad practice.
Much of the assumptions about technological change came from hasty generalizations The changing Nature of some collective actions, jobs in certain areas of the economy or organizations were considered as optimal and necessary paths for the entire society from individual to national levels. Public administration reforms are far from being a consequence of new technologies.
Moreover public administration reforms do not embed ICTs and do not have a happy marriage with e-government. Urban and Rural Development: The rapid development of information and communication technologies has greatly accelerated economic globalization. The 21st century is a century of global urbanization and cities will play an increasingly important role in a country or region. The ongoing ICT evolution reshapes and regroups traditional cities and transforms their social and economic bases enormously.
Just like industrial development completely changed the spatial structure of cities in the agricultural society, the progress of information and communication technologies is the key element of the transformation of modern cities. Information and telecommunication technology, as the choice of a future city, holds out the promises of a better life The Rural development in a country is one of the most important factors for growth of the country economy.
The present strategy of rural development mainly focuses on poverty alleviation, better livelihood, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities. Application of ICT is a paradigm shift to the traditional approaches that the government has been using past so many decades. With the use of ICT, government renders services and information to the public using electronic means. With the rising awareness amongst the citizens and their better experiences with the private sector— the demand for better services on the part of government departments became more pronounced.
The infusion of Information and Communication Technology ICT is playing a prominent role in strengthening such a demand. ICT applications are useful in facilitating development programmes in many countries.
These technologies help in supporting economic and social developments. The establishment of telecentres in rural communities can facilitate economic empowerment.
Mobile telephony can also help rural challenges that can come along. Combining ICT in Rural Development can not only speed up the development process but it can also fill the gaps between the educationally and technologically backward and forward sections of the society.
Several e-governance projects have attempted to improve the reach, enhance the base, minimize the processing costs, increasing transparency and reduce the cycle times.
Introduction of computers, e-commerce is some of the initiatives by the government that has up to an extent been able to bring the rural population in contact with the information technology. The opportunities of ICT application in rural development are immense at the same time the government will also be facing some challenges also.
Transport and ICT services could be only partially supplied by the market transactions In some cases, they could not be supplied at all in the market economy. In the transport sector, ICT applications can be used to improve road, air and rail transportation. ICT applications are noticeable in the air transport control, monitoring of freight and the day-to-day transport system.
For example, the development of smart cards helps facilitate the smooth operations of the transport system. These operations include payment for parking metres, identification of authorized parking space occupants. Types of Transportation Infrastructure and Decentralization Road: In nationwide network type infrastructure such as trunk road networks, the issue is the division of roles between central and local government. On the other hand, in local area network type infrastructure such as rural roads, participation by and reflection of the needs of beneficiaries also become important.
Division of role between central and local governments is associated with classification of roads according to their function and service coverage of the corresponding supervisory agency. How to distribute road-related funds to finance maintenance is also an issue. Railway: In nationwide network type infrastructure such as national railways network, horizontal unbundling depending on the railway project service type or area based division of service provider has been implemented as a sector reform.
This does not match with the decentralization concept of administrative organization stated here. Transport facilities of interurban railway, urban railway, and local railway are provided either by public sector unit which owns railway facilities in the case of horizontal unbundling or by railway organization serving the respective area in the case of area based division.
On the other hand, transport service is either operated by public corporation affiliated to the central government as a part of national standard service or by the other organization, which solely operates at the local railway service area. Thus, it cannot be categorically described that the service provision is done by municipality or by local government affiliated organization.
An issue in the transport service provision is that how to provide efficient and high quality services by reflecting user's needs including both passengers and cargo.
Port and Airport: Similar to roads, in the case of port and airport, the central government operates and maintains major ports and airports, which function as the nodes of major maritime and air traffic. In other ports and airports, local government plays a large role in constructing, operating and maintaining the facility, by providing investment funds and by operating the facility by itself. Transport Service Provision: When the transport sector is deregulated parallel to decentralization, local government faces the problems of how to promote entry of private sector and how to develop local transport industry, as targeted service area of transport service is limited for urban and local transport subway and bus services.
In such case, local government takes over the role of central government, which has been traditionally assured, by the central government such as developing the comprehensive urban transportation strategy and planning and maintenance of each transport mode. Impact of ICTS on the Pharmaceutical: The big stories in ICT development are not of particular breakthrough technologies, but rather those of rapid and continuous improvement in price performance of Computing and communications, the explosion of bandwidth capacity in fixed and mobile networks, and the emergence and development of the internet and internet-based applications.
Perhaps the most important development is the convergence of technologies, which is opening up new possibilities in a number of fields e. Impact of ICTs on the pharmaceutical industry: Over recent years the drug discovery pipeline has been a concern for many in the pharmaceutical industry. The convergence of information and bio-technologies is already revolutionizing drug discovery and design and may radically alter the economics of the drug discovery over the coming years.
They suggested that prior to the genomics 'revolution' developing a new drug cost an average of around USD million and took 15 years from start to finish. By applying genomics technologies, they suggested that companies could realize average savings of around USD million and 2 years on drug development. Longer term, genetics technologies could save up to USD million per drug and between 0. None of this would be possible without ICTs. Impact of ICTs on the healthcare industry: There is an enormous range of opportunities for significant cost reductions, service enhancements and behavioural change through what is often broadly referred to as 'e- health'.
There will be strong motivation to adopt systems which enable payers to track expenditures and exercise control over the JECET; September-November, ; Vol. From the payers' perspective, ICTs are tools for demand management and cost containment. Electronic scheduling and patient management systems could improve scheduling of tests and procedures, and thereby reduce the length of hospital stays and reduce the need for multiple visits. Linking insurers, healthcare providers, financial institutions and consumers into claiming and payments systems also has the potential to reduce significantly administrative costs and improve quality of service.
There are already some examples of leading-edge activities, but for many progresses towards realising these benefits has been relatively slow. Knowledge enrichment and practice administration systems are widely used, but the adoption of clinical tools has been relatively slow because of the complexity of such applications and a range of doctor concerns eg.
Perhaps the greatest change in the patient-provider relationship will be brought about by the use of internet by patients. ICT applications are becoming valuable resources in the medical field. They support efficient exchange of information between health professionals, they enable transfer of patient records between sites and they can improve clinical effectiveness, continuity, and quality of care by health professionals ICT applications facilitate telemedicine - "the use of ICTs to provide medical demand independent of person-to-person contact".
Telemedicine provides medical service to people in geographically diverse settings: at home and in isolated places or in emergencies. Separated by km, two surgeons made South African medical history when they jointly performed an operation on a two-year-old.
Dr Bob Banieghbal at Chris Hani Baragwaneth Hospital in Soweto and Professor Benno Ure at his offices in Hannover, Germany, made use of the latest advancement in surgery - the telementoring system, 'Socrates' - to perform a laparoscopic surgery.
A voice-controlled robotic arm Aesop positions and holds an endoscope a minute camera used to view internal organs which is inserted into the patient via the navel Special Needs For the Physically Challenged : For many people with physical disabilities, ICTs can be extremely useful in providing access to communication, education and open up opportunities for them.
The use of Braille keyboards and printers can help alleviate some common literacy and numeracy problems for visually impaired or blind people. Most telecommunications infrastructures are now being designed with the capabilities of meeting the special needs of the physically challenged.
For instance, the Short Message Service SMS can be used to send and receive messaged by the hearing impaired, the voice activated dialing service can be used by visually impaired. Education: The education sector is arguably one major area that ICTs are playing remarkable a role. These technologies help in facilitating learnship and exchange of educational materials.
ICTs are helping library professionals store and manage academic information. Libraries have migrated from the traditional Dewey cataloguing system to an on-line system, which is a web-based cataloguing and search application. The online learning system is another web-based application that is revolutionalising the learning platform of education.
This system compliments the traditional face-to face teaching and learning format. In the on-line system, students can access class notes, submit assignment and also join a discussion group with other learners. Senior managers need information to help with their business planning. Middle management need more detailed information to help them monitor and control business activities.
Employees with operational roles need information to help them carry out their duties. As a result, businesses tend to have several "information systems" operating at the same time. This revision note highlights the main categories of information system and provides some examples to help you distinguish between them. The main kinds of information and communication technologies in business are described briefly below: Information Description System Executive An Executive Support System "ESS" is designed to help senior management make Support Systems strategic decisions.
It gathers, analyses and summarises the key internal and external information used in the business. A good way to think about an ESS is to imagine the senior management team in an aircraft cockpit - with the instrument panel showing them the status of all the key business activities.
ESS typically involve lots of data analysis and modelling tools such as "what-if" analysis to help strategic decision-making. Management A management information system "MIS" is mainly concerned with internal sources Information of information. MIS usually take data from the transaction processing systems see Systems below and summarise it into a series of management reports.
MIS reports tend to be used by middle management and operational supervisors. Decision-Support Decision-support systems "DSS" are specifically designed to help management make Systems decisions in situations where there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions. DSS comprise tools and techniques to help gather relevant information and analyze the options and alternatives.
DSS often involves use of complex spreadsheet and databases to create "what-if" models. These are typically used in a business where employees create new Systems knowledge and expertise - which can then be shared by other people in the organization to create further commercial opportunities. Good examples include firms of lawyers, accountants and management consultants. KMS are built around systems which allow efficient categorization and distribution of knowledge.
For example, the knowledge itself might be contained in word processing documents, spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations. Internet pages or whatever. To share the knowledge, a KMS would use group collaboration systems such as an intranet. Transaction As the name implies, Transaction Processing Systems "TPS" are designed to process Processing routine transactions efficiently and accurately.
A business will have several sometimes Systems many TPS; for example: - Billing systems to send invoices to customers - Systems to calculate the weekly and monthly payroll and tax payments - Production and purchasing systems to calculate raw material requirements - Stock control systems to process all movements into, within and out of the business Office Office Automation Systems are systems that try to improve the productivity of Automation employees who need to process data and information.
Perhaps the best example is the Systems wide range of software systems that exist to improve the productivity of employees working in an office e. Microsoft Office XP or systems that allow employees to work from home or whilst on the move. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, or sent by loud whistles, for example.
In the modern age of electricity and electronics, telecommunications now also includes the use of electrical devices such as the telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, as well as the use of radio and microwave communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plus the use of the orbiting satellites and the Internet.
A revolution in wireless telecommunications began in the first decade of the 20th century with pioneering developments in wireless radio communications by Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo Marconi. Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in for his efforts.